BC transistor switch. Thread starter Catriona82 Start date Mar 25, Search Forums New Posts. Thread Starter Catriona82 Joined Feb 15, Hi everyone, just need some quick advice. I want to use the BC transistor as a switch to control an arduino lilypad twinkle via an output of a lilypad MP3 player. What I'm not sure about is what gain value I use to calculate the base resistor. Which one do I use?
Scroll to continue with content. AlbertHall Joined Jun 4, 10, If you are using the transistor as a switch assume a gain of ten to make sure the transistor is saturated so you get the minimum voltage across the 'switch'.
This also keeps the power loss in the transistor to a minimum. Gain will change with collector current and which BC you have, At mA gain will be minimum on most types. BC is different than BC or Catriona82 said:. For minimum saturation voltage, when using a BJT as a switch, a current gain of 10 is typically used. If you want to minimize the base current, and a possibly slightly higher saturation is acceptable, then you could use a gain of 20 to calculate the required base resistor.
But I would never use a gain value higher than 20 for good design practice. You must log in or register to reply here. Replacing 2n with BC You May Also Like. Continue to site. Transistor flasher. General Electronics Chat. Yesterday at PM. How to choose a correct transistor or N FET. Thursday at PM. Use of 2N instead of BC, getting a bit hot. Sep 10, Jul 22, No gain or loss shall be recognized to the liquidating corporation on the distribution to the percent distributee of any property in a complete liquidation to which section applies.
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Please help us improve our site! No thank you. LII U. Code Title Income Taxes Chapter 1. Effects on Corporation Section Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary. Code Notes prev next. B on the date of the adoption of the plan of liquidation, such corporation was indebted to the percent distributee. B Exception where property will be used in unrelated business i In general Subparagraph A shall not apply to any distribution of property to an organization described in section a 2 if, immediately after such distribution, such organization uses such property in an activity the income from which is subject to tax under section a.
Added Pub. Prior Provisions A prior sectionacts Aug. Amendments —Subsec. Effective Date of Amendment Pub. Effective Date of Amendment Amendment by Pub. Effective Date Section applicable to any distribution in complete liquidation, and any sale or exchange, made by a corporation after July 31,unless such corporation is completely liquidated before Jan.The ADXL is a small, thin, low power, complete 3-axis accelerometer with signal conditioned voltage outputs. It can measure the static acceleration of gravity in tiltsensing applications, as well as dynamic acceleration resulting from motion, shock, or vibration.
Bandwidths can be selected to suit the application, with a range of 0. This product has been released to the market. The data sheet contains all final specifications and operating conditions. For new designs, ADI recommends utilization of these products. The small size 1" x 1" of the breakout board makes it easy to mount the accelerometer to an existing system without the need for additional hardware and with minimal effect on performance of the system and of the accelerometer.
ADI has always placed the highest emphasis on delivering products that meet the maximum levels of quality and reliability. We achieve this by incorporating quality and reliability checks in every scope of product and process design, and in the manufacturing process as well.
International prices may differ due to local duties, taxes, fees and exchange rates. For volume-specific price or delivery quotes, please contact your local Analog Devices, Inc. Pricing displayed for Evaluation Boards and Kits is based on 1-piece pricing. The package for this IC i. An Evaluation Board is a board engineered to show the performance of the model, the part is included on the board. For detailed drawings and chemical composition please consult our Package Site.
Pin Count is the number of pins, balls, or pads on the device. This is the acceptable operating range of the device. The various ranges specified are as follows:.
Indicates the packing option of the model Tube, Reel, Tray, etc. This is the date Analog Devices, Inc. Most orders ship within 48 hours of this date. Once an order has been placed, Analog Devices, Inc. It is important to note the scheduled dock date on the order entry screen. We do take orders for items that are not in stock, so delivery may be scheduled at a future date.
Also, please note the warehouse location for the product ordered.LM is a positive-voltage regulator with an adjustable voltage range from 1. It can supply greater than 1. In most of the applications, due to irregular loads, the output voltage produced has fluctuations in it which can lead to damaging loads.
Therefore, voltage regulators are used. The main function of the LM IC is to maintain the constant and stable voltage at the output. It is used for linear regulation. These diagrams show the pinout of all types.
However, the functionality of all pins is the same for each type. It is 3 terminal device used for linear regulation of the output.
The details of pins are as under:. This picture shows a functional block diagram of the adjustable voltage regulator. As you can see from the block diagram that it has built-in over temperature and over current protection circuits. This IC is intended for use in a regulation of variable voltages. It can be used for multiple purposes. It can be used as a fixed voltage regulator, AC voltage regulator, current limiter, Battery charger, local and on-card regulation.
It has one drawback that during regulation its voltage drop to about 2.
ADXL337 and ADXL377 Accelerometer Hookup Guide
The LM IC develops and maintains 1. Its output can be adjusted by connecting a network of two resistors externally between the output pin and adjust the input pin.
The two decoupling capacitors are connected in a circuit. They are used to remove the undesired coupling and avoid the effect of noise. To use it is a variable regulator, we have connected a potentiometer at the adjustable pin. By changing the value of a potentiometer, you can obtain the desired voltage at the output. This is a simple example circuit using an LM voltage regulator. We need only two external resistors.The short form of the operational amplifier is op-amp, is a one kind of solid state IC.
The first operational amplifier is designed by Fairchild Semiconductors in the year It is the basic building block of analog electronic circuits that accomplish a different types of analog signal processing tasks. These ICs uses an exterior feedback to regulate its functions and these components are used as a multipurpose device in various electronic instruments. It consists of two inputs an two outputs, namely inverting and non inverting terminals. The applications of operational amplifier mainly involve in filters, comparators, pulse generators, oscillators, etc.
The IC operational amplifier looks like a small chip. The representation of IC op-amp is given below that comprises of eight pins. The triangular form in the IC signifies an op-amp integrated circuit. The current version of the chip is denoted by the famous IC op amp.
The main function of this IC is to do mathematical operations in various circuits. The pin configuration of the IC operational amplifier is shown below.A simple guide to electronic components.
It comprises of eight pins where the function of each pin is discussed below. In an IC op amp, pin2 and pin6 are the input and output pins. When the voltage is given to the pin-2 then we can get the output from the pin In an IC op amp pin3 and pin6 are input and output pins.
When the voltage is given to the pin3 then we can get the output from the pin The IC Op Amp applications mainly includes an adder, comparator, subtractor, voltage follower, Integrator and differentiator.
The circuit diagram of IC op amp is given below. In the following circuit, IC operational amplifier is used as a comparator. Even if we used as a comparator the IC still observes the weak signals so that they can be identified more simply. The characteristics of the IC operational amplifier include the following. There are many electronic circuits are built with IC op amp namely Voltage follower, analog to digital convertersample and hold circuit, voltage to current and current to voltage converting, summing amplifieretc.
The applications of the IC operational amplifier include the following. Furthermore, any queries regarding this concept or op amp projects, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below.
Here is a question for you. What is the function of IC op amp? Share This Post: Facebook. Arduino Projects for Engineering Students.Track My Order. Frequently Asked Questions. International Shipping Info. Send Email. Mon-Fri, 9am to 12pm and 1pm to 5pm U. Mountain Time:. Chat With Us. Here are photographs of each accelerometer breakout board which we created to make these small chips easier to use:. The primary difference between the two is the range of acceleration they measure.
In this tutorial, we will help you learn how to use these accelerometers so you can quickly and painlessly integrate them into your project[s]. Here is what we'll cover:. You may also need a breadboardjumper wiresand straight male headers to follow the example setup, if you don't already have these or another way of connecting the Arduino to the breakout board. Before continuing on with this tutorial, we recommend you be somewhat familiar with the concepts in these tutorials:.
As you can see, each breakout has the same pins broken out. Here is some information about each pin:. You can use a 5V or 3. Be aware though, that your analog to digital ADC readings will vary depending on whether you're using a 5V or 3. Both will work, just be aware of how it affects the numeric values the microcontroller reads.
Fortunately, you don't need a lot of power to make the accelerometers work. However, if the X pin reads 3.
In Depth Guide: LM317 3-Terminal Adjustable voltage Regulator
The usage of both chips is essentially the same, but interpreting the readings is different due to the scale that each chip measures. The ADXL also has 4 mounting holes, as opposed to just two, to allow for a more secure physical connection to your project since it will likely be subjected to more extreme force.The power supply received at the load end or consumer end has fluctuations in the voltage levels due to irregular loads or based condition of the local power grid.
These voltage fluctuations may lead to the reduction of the lifespan of the electrical and electronic appliances of the consumer or damage to the loads. So, it is required to protect loads from over and under voltages or need to provide a constant voltage to the loads and to maintain stability in system voltage using the regulation technique.
Voltage regulation can be defined as maintaining constant voltage or maintaining the voltage level of a system within acceptable limits over a wide range of load conditions and thus, voltage regulators are used for voltage regulation.
For linear voltage regulation, and occasionally adjustable LM voltage regulator is used wherein the non-standard voltage is intended.
The voltage regulation in a power supply system can be achieved using an electrical or electronic device called as voltage regulators. There are different types of voltage regulators such as Fixed voltage regulators and Variable voltage regulators. These are again subdivided into many types as Electronic voltage regulators, Electro-mechanical regulators, Automatic voltage regulators, linear voltage regulators, Switching regulators, LM voltage regulators, Hybrid regulators, SCR regulators, and so on.
Dobkin and Robert J. Widlar while they worked at the National Semiconductor in It is a three-terminal-adjustable-voltage regulator and is easy to use because to set the output voltage it requires only two external resistors in the LM voltage regulator circuit. It is majorly used for local and on-card regulation. If we connect a fixed resistor between the output and adjustment of the LM regulator, then the LM circuit can be used as a precision current regulator. The three terminals are input pin, output pin, and adjustment pin.
The LM circuit is shown in the below figure is a t y pical configuration of the LM voltage regulator circuit diagram including the decoupling capacitors. The circuit consists of a low-side resistor and high-side resistor connected in series forming a resistive voltage divider which is a passive linear circuit used to produce an output voltage which is a fraction of its input voltage. Decoupling capacitors are used for decoupling or to prevent undesired coupling of one part of an electrical circuit from another part.
To avoid the effect of noise caused by some circuit elements over the remaining elements of the circuit, the decoupling capacitors in the circuit are used for addressing the input noise and output transients. A heat sink is used with the circuit to avoid the components getting overheated due to more power dissipation. There are some special features of the LM regulator and a few are as follows:. The LM regulator can provide excess output current and hence with this capacity, it is conceptually considered as an operational amplifier.
The adjustment pin is the inverting input of the amplifier and to produce a stable reference voltage of 1. The output pin voltage can be continuously adjusted to a fixed amount using a resistive voltage divider between the output and ground, which will configure the operational amplifier as a non-inverting amplifier.
A bandgap reference voltage is used to produce constant output voltage irrespective of the changes in supply power. It is also called a temperature-independent reference voltage frequently used in integrated circuits.
An error term is added because some quiescent current flows from the adjustment pin of the device. For achieving more stable output, the LM voltage regulator circuit diagram is designed such that to make the quiescent current less than or equal to micro Ampere. Thus, in all practical cases, the error can be ignored. If we replace the low-side resistor of the divider from the LM voltage regulator circuit diagram with the load, then the resulting configuration of the LM regulator will regulate the current to a load.
The output current is the voltage drop of reference voltage across the resistance RH and is given as. Linear regulators naturally draw much current as they supply.
The power produced due to the multiplication of this current with the voltage difference between the input and output will be dissipated and wasted as heat. Due to this, heat is required to be considered for significant design and leads to inefficiency. If the voltage difference increases, then the power wasted will increase, and sometimes this dissipated waste power will be more than the supplied power.
Even though this is insignificant, but as the linear voltage regulators with a few additional components is a simple way to obtain stable voltage, so, we must accept this trade-off. The switching voltage regulators are alternative for these linear regulators as these switching regulators are generally more efficient, but they require more number of components to design and thus need more space.